Ecological niche example

Ecological niches possess characteristics that are dictated by the unique environmental and biological conditions found in them. For example, temperature, available nutrients, and the presence of.. An ecological niche describes how a species interacts with, and lives in, its habitat. Ecological niches have specific characteristics, such as availability of nutrients, temperature, terrain, sunlight and predators, which dictate how, and how well, a species survives and reproduces

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Ecological Niche Types & Examples What is an Ecological

  1. Therefore, an ecological niche is an area used or inhabited by species that have adapted especially for it. For example, Spitting fish (Archer Fish) spit out water to hit insects flying above the water's surface
  2. Some examples of habitat and ecological niche Green anaconda (Eunectes murinus): It inhabits the humid tropical forests of South America such as the Amazon rainforest and occupies its niche as an omnivorous predator in soils and flooded areas
  3. Examples of Ecological Niches Kirtland's Warbler. Kirtland's Warbler is a rare bird that lives in small areas on Michigan's northern Lower and Upper Peninsula. Kirtland's Warbler niche is the Jack Pine forest, and the forest must have very special conditions. Jack pine forests of over 80 acres are ideal for this species
  4. He ecological niche is the position that a species occupies in the ecosystem, interacting with the other members of its biological community.. It is understood as the specific role or role of each species within a biological community. This includes competition, parasitism, predation and mutualism among species, in addition to some abiotic factors such as soil, humidity and temperature
  5. According to this definition, a habitat can be inhabited by individuals of different species, but each of them will have a certain ecological niche, which is unique. Thus, for example, in the same habitat, pollinators, scavengers, those that perform photosynthesis, decomposers, etc. can be distinguished
  6. ed by the biotic factors, which comprise of living features such as animals, plants and fungi, and abiotic factors

Ecological Niche - Definition, Examples and Quiz Biology

What is an example of an ecological niche? + Exampl

Examples of ecological niche Here we mention different animal species and their niches. Blue whale: Mostly located in the Antarctic, Indian and northeastern Pacific Oceans. Their diet is based solely on small crustaceans known by the name of krill and are almost impossible to hunt by other animals due to their enormous size This is an over simplified example though because a niche really is more than just diet or just habitat. Niches are complex. The actual or realized niche of a species may very well be entirely different from its fundamental niche, or the entire role/area a species could utilize in its niche if free from limitations.For example, while a primate that lives mainly on leaves may love to eat fruit. For example, the kangaroos of the Australian grassland are the ecological equivalents of the bison and pronghorn of the North American grassland. Fundamental and realised niches: In 1958, Hutchinson introduced the terms fundamental niche and realised niche

Difference between habitat and ecological niche with example

What is Ecological Niche and Examples? Micro B Lif

  1. g, flying) as well environmental ones (e.g temperature limits)
  2. If you closely look at a typical habitat in the environment, you will see many organisms living and working together, fulfilling their ecological niches. For example, imagine you are walking..
  3. ecological niche theory in sociocultural anthropology: a conceptual framework and an application' THOMAS F. LOVE-University of California, Davis Numerous concepts and terms in biological ecology, such as community, (phyto) sociology, and exploitation, are derived directly from the social sciences

From the Cambridge English Corpus For instance, it reflects, better than any other parameter, the breadth of their ecological niche, and thus their exact position and role in the biosphere. From the Cambridge English Corpus Most parasites are associated with a specific ecological niche and diet An overview of what an ecological niche is, and the differences between fundamental and realized niches Niche is the organism role that it performs living in the ecosystem. it is described on the basis of the organism's reproduction, diet, and the impact of activities that it performs in the environment. For instance, birds feed on fruits solely, other on insects only. while the rest on anything else they find (like some domestic birds An ecological niche is the part of the environment into which a species fits, and to which it is adapted. A shorthand definition of niche in biology is how an organism makes a living in a place.. However, the term has been used in different ways. It is not only a place but a way of life. For example, grazers, insectivores, scavengers and predators can all live their different lifestyles in the.

The ecological niche is the position that a species occupies in the ecosystem , interacting with the other members of its biological community. It is understood as the role or specific role that each species exercises within a biological community. This includes competition, parasitism, predation and mutualism between species, as well as some abiotic factors such as soil, humidity and temperature Ecological Niches. INTRODUCTION. In every environment, there are niches that are filled by different species, for example, the Aye Aye fills a niche in Madagascar that woodpeckers usually fill in America. Honey bees move pollen. DISCUSSION. These three birds fill different niches of the tree. The cape may warbler feeds at the top uppermost part.

Ecological Niche. An ecological niche is the role an organism has in an ecosystem. The niche of an organism involves what resources it needs, how it will obtain these resources, the habitat it lives in, and how it fits into the ecosystem, such as its predators and prey [5]. No two species can have the same ecological niche Examples of habitat and ecological niche. Here are some specific examples of habitat and ecological niche: Common cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Their habitat is varied, as they are tremendously adaptable, but they can be found in urban contexts, such as dark, warm buildings or inside sewers. Their ecological niche has to do with their role.

Title: Ecological Niche Examples Author: SOOMAR, STEPHANIE M. Last modified by: SOOMAR, STEPHANIE M. Created Date: 9/28/2015 1:52:25 PM Document presentation forma The Blue Whale eats primarily krill, plankton and copepods. These organisms may be small but the blue whales eats up to 8,000 pounds. The Whale eats by sucking water into its mouth and filtering out the krill for consumption. This means that Blue Whales are carnivores and heterotroph. Surprisingly the Blue Whale is neithe 1. The kinkajou- It eats fruit, nectar, and insects. By eating the fruits, it spreads the seeds, making new trees. It eats termites, which protects the tree. 2. Harpy Eagles - they live in trees,.. Ecological Niche. The black footed ferret spends most of its time underground. For example, the first sentence would be better if you changed it to The black footed ferret is an endothermic heterotroph. You should have me or someone else help you with your writing style. Maybe you should take this to the writing center and get help from. niche example for diatoms the two conditions with silicate and phosphate. If more silicate, one species would dominate, if more phosphate then the other would dominate, if both were balanced then it was a realized niche for bot

In jamiemkass/ENMeval: Automated Tuning and Evaluations of Ecological Niche Models. Description Usage Format. Description. An example ENMevaluation object produced after running ENMevaluate() with feature classes L, LQ, LQH, H and regularization multipliers 1 through 5 Example of an ecological niche model with projections. Ellipsoid envelope models can also be projected to other scenarios. This is one example using a RasterStack of layers. Projections can be done to multiple scenarios in same modeling process by changing the type of projection_variables. Check the function's help for more details

10 Featured Ecology Niche Examples Life Person

  1. An ecological niche is the way in which a species or a community of organisms is positioned within a specific habitat against the environmental conditions (advantageous, disadvantageous) and the other species that coexist in said space (predators, prey, commensals, etc.). In other words, when talking about the ecological niche of a species, it.
  2. ed by the specific metabolic properties of that organism. For example, microbial organisms that can obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds (such as iron-reducing bacteria ) will likely occupy a different niche from those that obtain energy from light (such as.
  3. For example the Rhino fecal matter helps fertilize the soil, but the Rhino does not directly interact with many species.The Black Rhino can live for 40-50 years. The Black Rhino is a heterotrophic mammal, that only eats vegetables, which categorizes it as being a herbivore. One thought on Ecological Niche slux4xrds. May 7, 2014 at 6.
  4. Elton's niche can apply to several species, different species can be separated along any of these for example, ''the niche filled by birds of prey which eat dimensions or by a combination of them (i.e., their Author's personal copy 1090 Evolutionary Ecology | Ecological Niche pH no a priori reason to exclude presence of competitors from.

  1. es its niche
  2. g ecological niche models. Given the occurrence records and a set of environmental predictors, it prepares the data by cleaning for duplicates, removing occurrences with no environmental information and applying some.
  3. Ecological niche characteristics include parameters of emerged and submerged conditions and transitions between them, requiring adequate adaptations. Furthermore, there are fluctuations in temperature, humidity, salinity, etc ., even if only submerged or emerged state analyzed due to day-night and seasonal variations

What Is the Ecological Niche of a Deer? Deer live in mixed forests habitats, on wooded farmlands and even in suburban areas of established cities. In winter they take to coniferous forests for shelter. Deer are a prey species, providing food for coyotes, bobcats, cougars, wolves and occasionally humans PLAY. Match. Gravity. competition. Click card to see definition . Tap card to see definition . A common demand by two or more organisms upon a limited supply of a resource; for example, food, water, light, space, mates, nesting sites. It may be intraspecific or interspecific. Click again to see term

An ecological niche is the role and position a species has in its environment; how it meets its needs for food and shelter, how it survives, and how it reproduces. A species' niche includes all of its interactions with the biotic and abiotic factors of its environment An organisms niche is where it best fits into an ecosystem. If you can think of an organisms habitat as its address, then it's niche could be describe as its profession. Niche is a combination of where an organisms lives (its habitat), how it make a living there (adaptations) and the role it performs in the community The majority of species exist in a standard ecological niche. A premier example of a non-standard niche filling species is the flightless, ground-dwelling kiwi bird of New Zealand, which exists on worms, and other ground creatures, and lives its life in a mammal niche. Island biogeography can help explain island species and associated unfilled. For example, ectomycorrhizal fungi may be sensitive to nitrogen deposition at large scales, whereas AM fungi may be favored (Averill et al., 2018). Similarly, cross-comparisons of ecological niche models of entire microbial lineages can discover if microbial species distributions reflect evolutionary history or convergent evolution Ecological Niche: 'the total of the adaptations of an organismic unit' Niches identify the 'role of an organism in its community', or 'the way a species makes its living'. The niche of a species (or an individual) refers to the ways in which it interacts with its environment, s

Key points: In interspecies competition, two species use the same limited resource. Competition has a negative effect on both of the species (-/- interaction). A species' niche is basically its ecological role, which is defined by the set of conditions, resources, and interactions it needs (or can make use of) ECOLOGICAL NICHE. Range is from southern Canada to Panama. Can also be found throughout southwestern U.S. and the Adirondack Park. They live in deciduous, mixed forests and wooded farmlands. Use coniferous trees for shelter in winter. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Get Started The ecological niche is a very difficult process of finding information. Each living species has its own ecological niche. The ecological niche is smaller at the lower level of the trophic level. For example, bees only collect honey from flowers. And the ecological niche is large at the upper level of the trophic level

Niche - Definition and Examples Biology Dictionar

For example, the density of birds is greater in the ecotone between the forest and the desert. Ecological Niche. Niche refers to the unique functional role and position of a species in its habitat or ecosystem. The functional characteristics of a species in its habitat is referred to as niche in that common habitat It is a typical example of how light variation influences the species composition. Recent studies conducted by ecologists named this niche a 'climax' forest. They reckoned that this system had attained a stable steady-state whereby only those species that can endure self-autogenic effect would dictate the entire system What Is Ecological Niche? While the habitat describes the external environment, or outside elements which can affect an organism, a niche in ecology describes the role an organism plays within that ecosystem. While a habitat impacts the plant or animal, a niche describes how that plant or animal impacts its environment more measured niche axes. We found evidence for ontogenetic shifts in diet (δ15N) but not production source (δ13C) in both species, suggesting a subtle expansion of measured ecological niche axes. Spatial interpolation of stable isotope ratios showed distinct latitudinal gradients; for example, individuals were 13C enriched in norther

Video: Example Of Ecological Niche - 794 Words Bartleb

What is an Ecological Niche and its example? Micro B Lif

Niche conservatism theory suggests that recently diverged sister species share the same ecological niche. However, if the ecological niche evolves as part of the speciation process, the ecological pattern could be useful for recognizing cryptic species. In a broad sense systematists agree that the n Definition of ecological niche ecosystem. Jitka polechová david storch in encyclopedia of ecology second edition 2019. In ecology a niche is the role or job of a species in a habitat. The word niche comes from the french word nicher which means to nest an ecological niche describes how a species interacts with and lives in its habitat Niche is species-specific and it supports only a single species. Habitat consists of several niches. Niche is specific to a particular species, which may overlap with a similar niche but must have distinct differences. Habitat is a superset of niche. Niche is a subset of habitat. Examples: desert, ocean, mountains, grassland, forest, etc Ecological niche. In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. More formally, the niche includes how a population responds to the.

Example Of Ecological Niche 794 Words | 4 Pages. An ecological niche is the mode of existence that a species has within an ecosystem (The Ecological Niche, n.d.). A species niche includes three main things. First its habitat which is where a species lives in an ecosystem Difference between habitat and niche-EcologyWelcome to MooMooMath and ScienceIn this video, I will talk about habitat and nicheA habitat is an ecological are.. The term niche, when used in the science of ecological biology, is used to define an organism's role in an ecosystem. A niche may also encompass what the organism eats, how it interacts with other living (biotic) elements, and also how it interacts with the nonliving (abiotic) aspects of the environment, as well Realized niche is a subset of this fundamental niche as it describes ecological conditions that are available, and occupied by the species. Species will not find the fundamental niches since there are many factors affecting their habitats such as the presence of predators, human activities on the environment, etc

APES CH 5 Fundamental niche - YouTube

Ecological Niche - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

See Page 1. For example, the ecological niche of the northern long eared bat includes: the temperature range it tolerates the type of boreal forest trees on which it roosts the size and type of insects it eats. Niche Each species in a lake occupies a niche that it requires for its survival. The individuals that photosynthesize and absorb. Chimpanzee Ecological Niche. Topics: Primate, Human, Hominidae Pages: 3 (669 words) Published: August 2, 2017. Local to the Southern Senegal, Uganda, Western Tanzania, and along the Northern. Congo River, the Chimpanzee today is an endangered African species that is a close relative to. modern humans, sharing 98% of genes (Chimpanzee 1) Here, we used ecological niche modeling to characterize R. sanguineus sensu lato environmental requirements as regards aspects of temperature and precipitation and potential geographic distribution under present and future conditions in different regions. Most importantly, we also assessed uncertainty in terms of model variability coming from distinct sources and of risk of strict. Niche Definition. Niche was very first explained by the Joseph Grinnel in about 1971. Accordingly, niche is a sub-unit or distributional unit that species each organism specie. Niche can also be defined as the specie appearance within the environment; for example, how the specie get all the needy stuff like food & shelter to maintain its presence in the ecosystem The Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) has been developped by Hirzel et al. (2002) to analyse the position of the niche in the ecological space. Nicolas Perrin (1984) described the position of the niche in the n-dimensional space using two measures: the M-specialization (hereafter termed marginality) and the S-specialization (hereafter.

The ecological niche is an important concept in ecology. Please explain: (i) why Evelyn Hutchinson's concept of a n-dimensional niche is used so widely today in ecology; (ii) describe two potential applications of this approach and their data requirements; and (iii) explain why caution must be shown when using estimates of niche constraints to project the distributions of species This is a great example of how ecological selection can create niches for different species by performing the same function with different outcomes. Vs. sexual selection In cases where ecological and sexual selection factors are strongly at odds, simultaneously encouraging and discouraging the same traits, it may also be important to. It provides an excellent example to illustrate what ecologists call a niche. A niche is the lifestyle of an organism: where it lives and what it eats, but also things such as how it avoids predators or what other species it depends on. The beaver has a specialized niche. It lives in ponds or small lakes and eats vegetation The niche of an organism is the total position and function of an individual in its environment. No two species of a given community can have exactly the same niche and live permanently together. For example- crickets and Grasshoppers are closely related insects that live in the same habitat, however, each occupies a different ecological niche Example of Ecological niche. 1 sentence with ecological niche- how to use it in a sentence. Lists. synonyms. antonyms. definitions. examples. thesaurus We altered our ecological niche by creating civilization Ad-free experience & advanced Chrome extension. about examples terms privacy & cookie policy PRO subscription

Ecological Niche. Moon Jellyfish have a wide variety of fish in their diet. They eat zooplankton, mollusks, crustaceans, copepods, nematodes and eggs of fish and shrimp. They catch their food by stinging them. Their tentacles have venom in them which paralyzes or can even kill their prey. Their predators are sea turtles and large birds. 2 thoughts on Ecological Niche slux4xrds. May 5, 2014 at 6:31 am Great information on this pay as well. Again, just a few minor grammatical errors and typos. This is great work Bella! You earned 24/25 points for Checkpoint #2 - Steve. Reply. slux4xrds. May 5, 2014 at 6:31 a Crudely, an ecological niche is defined as the profession of an organism. It illustrates the functional role of an organism in an ecosystem with respect to other organisms surrounding it. Ecological niches describe an organism's relationship with other species (whether it is beneficial, adverse or neutral) in that ecosystem Ecological Niche. The Bengal Tiger, like most animals, is a heterotroph which means that they need to consume other organisms to obtain energy. These creatures are also endothermic which means they are warm blooded. By perfroming live birth and being covered head to tail in hair, Bengal Tigers are also classified as mammals

The ecological niche defined in terms of the functional role of organisms in the context of their behaviour, physiological responses and ecological adaptations. Indeed, the niche constitutes the entire living conditions warranted for the survival of organisms in the ecological environment The realised niche describes that part of the fundamental niche was actually occupied by the species. A habitat possesses many niches and supports many species. An organism changes its niches as they develop. For example, the common toad, Bufo bufo occupies the aquatic environment when it is a tadpole and feeds on algae and detritus The African Wild Dog's ecological niche is very interesting and unique. The species live and hunt in packs varying from 2-30 members. The average number of adults in the pack are from 7-8, the pack moves widely as they hunt for prey close in their range. If they cooperate with each other well enough the A niche is a place. But in ecological terms, it means the manner in which an organism responds to its environment. It includes the way in which an organism survives, the manner in which it can t feeds itself, obtains shelter and it's overall behavior. For example, a rabbit alters soil fertility by digging burrows, adding feces to it and it is.

Ecological Niche. The polar bear has adapted to live in the harsh tundra biome. The polar bear is a heterotroph meaning that it cannot synthesize its own food and eats other organisms. Polar bears are endothermic signifying that they are warm blooded and do not need heat from the sun to live. The polar bear is a tertiary consumer and an apex. It is a species in its own right and found an ecological niche in a densely packed, susceptible host that traveled far and wide. Oil plays a pretty important role in the niche(s) that recent human populations were able to occupy and in which to thrive (graph below) Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches. In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem.More formally, the niche includes how a population responds to the abundance of its resources and enemies (e. g., by growing when resources are abundant, and predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it. The ecological niche of an organism represents the range of conditions that if can tolerate, the resources it utilises, and its functional role in ecological system. Each species of a community lives in a very specific part of a habitat and performs certain functions. The habitat together with the functions forms the niche of the species

Ecological niche What is, characteristics, types

An ecological niche is an organism's mode of life; it is the sub of its adaptations. (You could think about it as the organism's profession. Pond, river, ocean is the best example of habitat as many organisms are found in the same place or habitat. These habitats can be arboreal, terrestrial, aerial, aquatic, etc. Definition of Niche. The term niche was first time used by 'Grinnell' in 1971. The term ecological niche is still not well understood and is sometimes even misused For example if you sell sweets in England you might only sell indian-sweets which is a niche market that no one else is using. Therefore an ecological niche is an area used or inhabited by species that have adapted especially for it. For example Spitting fish (Archer Fish) spit out water to hit insects flying above the water's surface

In ecology, the term niche describes the role an organism plays in a community. A species' niche encompasses both the physical and environmental conditions it requires (like temperature or terrain) and the interactions it has with other species (like predation or competition). For example, the rare Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), a small songbird of North America, has a. Ecological niche models were run through MaxEnt using presence only data. MaxEnt models were used to explore niche occupancy of four West Indian endemic bats (B. cavernarum, B. nana, M. plethodon, and M. redmani) and infer niche evolution. Locality data was partitioned into 70% training and 30% testing

Let's Talk Primates: What is an ecological niche

An example of an ecological niche model of arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti (red) and Ae. albopictus (blue), which occur worldwide, to predict transmission risk in Guatemala. Global climate data (gray dots) show the broad range and diversity of global environmental conditions summarized in the first three components of bioclimatic variables (red. During the last decade, the ecological theory of adaptive radiation, and its corollary ecological speciation, has been a major research theme in evolutionary biology. Briefly, this theory states that speciation is mainly or largely the result of divergent selection, arising from niche differences between populations or incipient species. Reproductive isolation evolves either as a result. (a) Individual versus population release. Most definitions of the niche focus on the ecological interactions of a population or species as a whole (Hutchinson 1957; Schoener 1989; Chase & Leibold 2003).Instead of this typological view of the niche, we argue that the niche is an emergent property of individuals' phenotypes and hence should be defined at the level of the individual A species' ecological niche is the abiotic and biotic conditions the species requires in order to grow, reproduce, and survive. Every species, therefore, has a fundamental niche, which are the abiotic conditions the species can physiologically tolerate, as well as a realized niche, which is driven by species interactions

Ecological Niche: Aspects, Concept and Advantages Zoolog

The Hutchinsonian Niche. Hutchinson's principal writings on the niche (1, 4) mingle consideration of the basic niche concept with issues of species coexistence.But the niche is a useful autecological construct, independent of its implications for interspecific interactions and community organization (3, 5), for instance, by providing an essential conceptual tool for understanding range limits () Ecological Niche. Sumatran Elephants are endothermic animals and are heterotrophs, so they get food such as vines and leaves from their green and moist environment. They are mammals and reproduce sexually although there is no particular breeding season. The female elephants are usually not ready to reproduce until the age of 14, whereas male.

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Ecological Niche Endangered Species: Indian Elephan

Kiwi are nocturnal birds. They are shy and avoid human contact, preferring to remain within the safety of forests. Breeding season for the kiwi begins in June, the New Zealand winter, and continues through to about March of the following year. Kiwis dig a burrow for the egg, or find a pre-existing burrow, several months before it is laid There are many species of mayfly and their niches vary. Some are adapted to rapidly flowing mountain streams with low nutrientand high oxygen content, some to slower streams with more organic matter, some to muddy dams and lakes, some to clear mou.. Definition of ecological niche in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of ecological niche. What does ecological niche mean? The majority of species exist in a standard ecological niche. A premier example of a non-standard niche filling species is the flightless, ground-dwelling kiwi bird of New Zealand, which exists on worms, and other. The Mahalanobis distance is a statistical technique that has been used in statistics and data science for data classification and outlier detection, and in ecology to quantify species-environment relationships in habitat and ecological niche models. Mahalanobis distances are based on the location and scatter of a multivariate normal distribution, and can measure how distant any point in space. In ecology, niche differentiation (also known as niche segregation, niche separation and niche partitioning) refers to the process by which competing species use the environment differently in a way that helps them to coexist. The competitive exclusion principle states that if two species with identical niches (ecological roles) compete, then one will inevitably drive the other to extinction

Ecological niche - Wikipedi

Ecological niche 811 1. Ecological niche 1,2 3,4Jitka Polechová & David Storch1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, 37996 Knoxville,Tennessee2 BIOSS, King's Buildings, EH93JZ Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (email: jitka@bioss.ac.uk)3 Center for Theoretical Study, Charles University, Jilská 1, 110 00-CZ Praha 1, CzechRepublic (e-mail: storch@cts.cuni.cz)4. If the specialty skill is properly maintained the innovator is usually protected against competition. The second ecological niche is the specialty-skill strategy. Here the niche an innovator occupies is just as unique as in the tollbooth strategy, but it tends to be somewhat larger.For example, everyone can name the major U.S. automobile manufacturers An ecological niche is a combination of where an organism lives (its habitat) and how the organism lives in that environment (for example, its adaptations to cope with the environment, its life cycle, etc.).. An ecological niche reflects the role that a particular organism plays within its biological community. Fundamental niche: This terms is used to describe the niche that a particular. We modeled the ecological niche of a globally successful Bacillus anthracis sublineage in the United States, Italy and Kazakhstan to better understand the geographic distribution of anthrax and potential associations between regional populations and ecology. Country-specific ecological-niche models were developed and reciprocally transferred to the other countries to determine if pathogen. 25.1 Interactions among competing species shape ecological niches. Fundamental niches Realized niches Chthamalus Semibalanus FIGURE 25.2 Competition among two species of barnacles limits niche use. Chthamaluscan live in both deep and shallow zones (its fundamental niche), but Semibalanusforces Chthamalusout of th

Ecological terms teaching resources – the science teacherHow do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop productionKS3 Science Packs - Science PathwaysIntroduction to Ecology