. Lesions of the vermis result in truncal tremor and gait ataxia (splayed stance and swaying of the body while walking Figure 19-1. Typical Defects in Cerebellar Diseases. (A) A lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere causes a delay in the initiation of movement. The patient is told to flex both arms at the same time on a go signal. The left arm is flexed later than the right, as evident in the recordings of elbow position. (8) A patient moving his arm from
cerebellar lesion studies. Structural MRI is helpful to analyse the localisation and extent of cerebellar lesions and to determine possible extracerebellar involvement. Functionally meaningful correlations between a cerebellar lesion site and behavioural data can be obtained both in subjects with degenerative as well as focal cerebellar disorders size (2 to 5 mm) lesions in the deep cerebellar white matter that were hyperintense on all pulse sequences (Figure 1) and confined to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. Twelve cases had IHLs located in the pons (pontine hyperintense lesions [PHLs]): 1 of 140 controls (0.7%), 7 of 161 MA (4.3%;P 0.05 versus controls), an Lesions of the cerebellum produce neurological signs which are easy to recognize and have been shown to have excellent inter-rater reliability. These signs evolve secondary to lesions in the vestibulocerebellar, vestibulospinal, and cerebellar ocular motor tracts. However, many signs such as gait ataxia and nystagmus may present in non. Rehabilitation of ataxic gait following cerebellar lesions: Applying theory to practice Physiother Theory Pract. 2016 Aug;32(6):430-437. doi: 10.1080/09593985.2016.1202364. Epub 2016 Jul 26. Authors Gemma Kelly 1 , Jackie Shanley 2 Affiliations 1 a The. BRAIN STEM LESIONS A59 (5) 2. MLF → internuclear ophthalmoplegia (failure of adduction in horizontal gaze but preservation of convergence). see p. Eye64 >> 3. Central tegmental tract → palatal myoclonus accompanied by rhythmic movements of pharynx, larynx, face, eyes, or respiratory muscles. gaze-evoked nystagmus - due to vestibular connections, cerebellar connections, MLF
cephalon, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The brainstem also contains all of the cranial nerve nuclei other than the olfactory (I), optic (II), and part of the accessory (XI) nerves. branches of the posterior circulation or mass effect secondary to space-occupying lesions. Knowledge of the complex function an Historical Perspective of the Cerebellar Exam. Of historical interest is the compass test used prior to the days of CT scans and MRI's. To conduct this test, you have the patient close their eyes and take two steps forward and two steps back; patient will turn toward side of lesion. Of course they must be capable of standing in the first. The areas of cerebellar damage most commonly associated with dysarthria were sought by reviewing the clinical, radiographic, surgical, and autopsy findings in patients with nondegenerative cerebellar disease. Case histories on 162 patients with focal cerebellar lesions were reviewed. All but 15 of the patients underwent surgery, and 28 had.
As the cerebellum is associated with motor control, lesions produce a range of movement disorders (ataxias). These can be differentiated by their time course. Lesions of the midline vermis of the cerebellum cause truncal ataxia, while lesions of the cerebellar hemispheres cause limb ataxia of the ipsilateral side cerebellum was also demonstrated. Therefore, differ-entiation of such SCA2 and SCA6 from sOPCA pa-Diseases involving bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles Diagnosis (no.) Age/sex Pontine Lesions Cbll Lesions Other Lesions Degenerative diseases (11) sOPCA (8) 47, 50, 53, 55/M, 61, 68, 71, 72/F Cross sign, atrophy Atrophy Atrophy of basal ganglia. lesion causes ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia. crossed connections between the frontal cerebral cortex and the cerebellum may allow unilateral frontal disease to mimic a contralateral cerebellar lesion. viii Ataxia Disorders book.indd 8 2/24/16 2:04 PM. Evaluation of the Ataxic Patien . To test this hypothesis, we examined the perfor-mance of patients with cerebellar lesions on these two classes of movements. In the first experiment, six patients with unilateral cerebellar lesions (fig. S1 and table S1) were tested on repetitive movement tasks with a target cycle duration of 800 ms (22)
PBR28 cerebellar uptake in patients versus HC in dif-ferent regions of interest, (2) to correlate uptake in lesions and normal appearing tissue, (3) to search for associations between cerebellar uptake values and clinical metrics (disease duration, EDSS, SDMT), (4) to assess correlation between SUVR in the cerebel-lum and in the brain Cerebellar Disorders. Cerebellar disorders have numerous causes, including congenital malformations, hereditary ataxias, and acquired conditions. Symptoms vary with the cause but typically include ataxia (impaired muscle coordination). Diagnosis is clinical and often by imaging and sometimes genetic testing Chapter 14 Cerebellar Tumors in Adults. Many lesions affect the posterior fossa, and the cerebellum in particular. Some tumors, such as brain stem gliomas, cerebellar pontine angle tumors, fourth ventricle tumors, and pineal area tumors extend into the cerebellum from surrounding areas. Metastatic lesions to the cerebellum are also common Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER. Language impairments in patients with cerebellar lesions. Download. Language impairments in patients with cerebellar lesions. Rita Moretti. Related Papers. Aphasia following cerebellar damage: fact or fallacy Brain lesions are a type of damage to any part of brain. Lesions can be due to disease, trauma or a birth defect. Sometimes lesions appear in a specific area of the brain. At other times, the lesions are present in a large part of the brain tissue. At first, brain lesions may not produce any symptoms
demonstrated modest hyperdensity in cerebellar hypodense lesions. T2WI revealed hypointensity in deep cerebellar white matter, which were more evident on SWI. MRS suggested lipid storage and mitochondrial dysfunction (Figure). The diagnosis of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) was confirmed by gene screening of CYP27A1 3. Discussion. Lax et al described ischemic-like lesions in the cerebellar cortex in 8/16 patients with mitochondrial disease, although none had Leigh Syndrome .These lesions were suggestive of dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells and blood-brain barrier breakdown .Other reports provide further evidence in favor of cerebral microangiopathy in mitochondrial diseases, mainly in. deep nuclei cerebellar regions and white matter. Progressive cerebral cortical, brainstem and corticospinal tract degeneration. Bone lesions and eczema. Zygomatic mass: Chemotherapy, low dose radiation therapy, surgery. CT/MR: symmetric lesions in cerebellar white matter. Large extraaxial granuloma of posterior fossa
Cerebellar Disease Focussed Examination Note: the instructions may be non-specific e.g. 'examine this patient with a tremor', 'examine this patient's gait and then proceed' or 'examine this patient neurologically'. tremor/gait abnormalities and then proceed with the relevant focussed examination t mis and normal cerebellar hemispheres. More recently, Nelson et al (12) have revived the con-cept that a cisterna magna should enlarge only in response to volume loss of a damaged cerebellum. They believe that when such large spaces manifest with mass effect on the cerebellum, enlargement of the posterior fossa and/or splitting of the falx lesions commonly less than 50; vesicular lesions are less common and the lesions are commonly papules that do not progress to vesicles. Varicella in vaccinated persons is typically the cerebellum, with resulting cerebellar ataxia, is the most common central nervous system manifestation (1 per 4,00 A TC-99-m ECD SPECT study and right cerebellar lesions were critical to causing apraxic agraphia in this patient disclosed a hypoperfusion in the right cerebellar since writing was entirely normal in both patients before the cere- hemisphere as well as a hypoperfusion in the medial and lateral re- bellar strokes occurred
Subsequent aspiration lesions of the cerebellar cortex were performed under the same conditions. In all cases, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and analgesics were administered postsurgery as needed and at least 1 week was allowed for recovery. Conditioning procedures. Conditioning procedures, data collection,. The sensorimotor cerebellum is represented in the anterior lobe with a second representation in lobule VIII, and lesions of these areas lead to the cerebellar motor syndrome of ataxia, dysmetria, dysarthria and impaired oculomotor control. The cognitive / limbic cerebellum is in the cerebellar posterior lobe, with current evidence pointing to. Damage to the cerebellum may lead to motor dysfunctions, but also to the neuropsychological deficits that comprise the Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome (CCAS). It can affect executive functions, attention, memory, visuospatial functions, language, and emotions. Our goal was to determine which neuropsychological tests could be effectively used to identify this syndrome during a short. We tested monkeys, patients, and normal control human subjects in a task that requires skilled use of the fingers. Animals and patients with lesions of the cerebellum, particularly of the cerebellar hemispheres, were severely impaired in retrieving raisins from small holes (monkeys) or shifting beads from place to place through a series of such holes, using the index finger alone or in. The cerebellum and cognition: cerebellar lesions impair sequence learning but not conditional visuomotor learning in monkeys Effects of cerebellar vermal lesions on species-specific fear responses, neophobia, and taste-aversion learning in rat
cerebellar peduncle or cerebellar parenchymal T2 hyperintense lesions, presence of diffuse T2 hyperintense lesion (>75% of region involved by visual inspection on axial sequences) in each location, and the presence of enhancement in the cerebellum or brainstem. Two patients with only MRI reports available wer ., 2003; Nitta et al., 2008a) our patients' lesions were larger and not confined to the vermis. Accordingly, we cannot infer from our data how far only vermis lesions or other defined cerebellar structures cause slow. cerebellar lesions, which predominantly affected the folia with edema. Tonsil and nodule were involved, but the deep cerebellar nucleus or cerebellar peduncle were not involved (Fig. 2d). Based on possible maternal inheritance of diabetes, short stature, elevated CSF L/P ratios, cerebral SLLs, and the lack of evidence of cardiogenic embolism.
The cerebellum is a structure essential for motor coordination and motor learning. Beside behavioral deficits, children with ADHD often show slight motor abnormalities. In the present study, handwriting was examined in both children with ADHD and children with cerebellar lesions Twelve patients with cerebellar infarction, 8 in the region supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and 4 in the territory of the superior cerebellar artery, underwent formal perceptual examination for speech deficits. With respect to topography the results firstly underline the significance of the paravermal region of the superior cerebellar portion for speech functions putaminal lesions.4-6 The work of Martin and Raichle7 has suggested effects on the ipsilateral cerebellum. We studied the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 12 patients with cerebellar lesions to determine whether there are changes in the rCBF of the cerebral hemi-spheres and, more particularly, in the contralateral one. Subjects and Method Eleven patients with cerebellar lesions (five women, mean age = 45.82 years, range = 25-61 years, all right-handed according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory; Oldfield, 1971) and 11 healthy controls, matched in age, sex, handedness, and educational background, participated in the experiment. All gave informed consent and were paid for. Cerebellum & ataxia. 1. Amr Hassan, M.D. Associate professor of Neurology - Cairo University CEREBELLUM. 2. CEREBELLUM 1) Vermis and hemispheres, and 2) three lobes. Vermis and hemispheres: The midline area is called the vermis, because it resembles a worm. Spreading out on either side from the vermis are the cerebellar hemispheres
Urban, PP, Marx, J, Hunsche, S. Cerebellar speech representation: lesion topography in dysarthria as derived from cerebellar ischemia and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol 2003 ; 60: 965 - 72 Such symptoms suggested cerebellar lesions and indeed lesions have been demonstrated in the cerebellum 1-3, but only occasionally. Recently, an alteration has been made in our technique of. Cerebellar degeneration refers to the deterioration of neurons (nerve cells) in the cerebellum (the area of the brain that controls muscle coordination and balance).Conditions that cause cerebellar degeneration may also affect other areas of the central nervous system, such as the spinal cord, the cerebral cortex (the thin layer of cells covering the brain), and the brain stem The cerebellum is a portion of the central nervous system (CNS) that is only concerned with the control of movement. This article describes the gross anatomy of the cerebellum, the functional regions of the cerebellum and some of the associated CNS loops/pathways. The cerebellum is a complicated structure and so this article only highlights key.
The cerebellum is a vital component in the human brain as it plays a role in motor movement regulation and balance control. The cerebellum (see image on R, horizontal fissure marked red) Coordinates gait. Maintains posture, Controls muscle tone and voluntary muscle activity. Is unable to initiate muscle contraction Your cerebellum is located in the lower back area of your brain, behind the top part of your brainstem, where your spinal cord connects with your brain. This area helps control coordination, posture, and balance, as well as speech and a number of important mental processes. Hence, when MS lesions affect this region of the brain, these abilities. The cerebellum is the part that handles many aspects of movement. This article provides a brief summary of the anatomy, purpose, and disorders of the cerebellum, as well as offering tips on.
The CT scan revealed a midline posterior fossa mass lesion (Figs. 1A and 1B). MRI showed a multiloculated cystic mass arising from the superior vermis with a lobulated component projecting into the superior cerebellar cistern (Figs. 1C, 1D, 1E). Mild enhancement of the rim was present, with an enhancing nodule superiorly Save pdf (0.09 mb) Save to Dropbox Save to Google Drive Save to Kindle. Share. Cite. We draw attention to the diagnosis of cerebellar vermis lesions and tumours of the fourth ventricle by presenting two cases of patients with positional nystagmus of so called benign paroxysmal type. We review the literature on positional nystagmus. The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.Although usually smaller than the cerebrum, in some animals such as the mormyrid fishes it may be as large as or even larger. In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control.It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as emotional. Ataxia is the cardinal sign of cerebellar dysfunction and when it occurs, it indicates the possibility of cerebellar lesions. However, this may not always be the correct explanation. Appenzeller and Hanson1 reviewed studies, published between 1916 and 1953, of patients with cerebellar signs attributed to parietal lesions. Extensive lesions.
Stroke-like episodes (SLEs) in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) with m.3243A > G mutation usually develop in the cerebral cortex. Few reports have documented SLEs in the cerebellum. The clinical neuroimaging features of cerebellar SLEs have not been fully investigated. We report distinctive features of cerebellar stroke-like lesions. 1 INTRODUCTION. The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), also called the brachium pontis, is the largest afferent system of the cerebellum. It consists of pontocerebellar tract (PCT) fibers arising from the contralateral pontine nuclei (Perrini, Tiezzi, Castagna, & Vannozzi, 2013).The detection rate of posterior fossa lesions has improved with rapid advancements in neuroimaging, and abnormal.
COORDINATION & GAIT Testing sensory, motor and cerebellum. Normal gait - demonstrate & ask pt to repeat à Gait disturbances à Vision, proprioception, LMN, UMN, basal ganglia, cerebellum & higher-order motor planning in association cortex are tested when observing gait disturbances. VESTIBULOCEREBELLUM LESIONS: postural instability, problem w/balance & eye movements Cerebellar ataxia is a form of ataxia originating in the cerebellum. Non-progressive congenital ataxia (NPCA) is a classical presentation of cerebral ataxias.. Cerebellar ataxia can occur as a result of many diseases and may present with symptoms of an inability to coordinate balance, gait, extremity and eye movements. Lesions to the cerebellum can cause dyssynergia, dysmetria. Background: Disorders of gaze-holding—organized by a neural network located in the brainstem or the cerebellum—may lead to nystagmus. Based on previous animal studies it was concluded that one key player of the cerebellar part of this gaze-holding neural network is the flocculus. Up to now, in humans there are no systematic studies in patients with cerebellar lesions examining one of the.
.e. lesions of the right cerebellar side have a SD to the left, whereas lesions of the left cerebellar side have a SD to the right (n = 6). The number of overlapping lesions is illustrated by different colours coding for increasing frequencies from violet (n = 1) to red (n = 6. Cerebellar lesions in the seven patients. MRI scans were analyzed by a neurologist, and the extent of pathology was sketched on seven axial cerebellar slices. Four lesions resulted from damage associated with stroke (LC01, LC02, LC04, LC06), and three lesions resulted from damage associated with tumor resection (LC03, LC05, LC07)
the cerebellar nucleus can support eyelid conditioning without the cerebellar cortex (Fig. 1B). Interpreting the effects of cerebellar cortex lesions on the acquisition of conditioned eyelid responses requires assurance that a lesion has damaged appropriate regions of cortex but has spared underlying pathways necessary for response expression Lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncle include various pathological conditions, ranging from infarction, tumor, infection, trauma and demyelination to primary and secondary degeneration. Understanding the anatomy, pathology, imaging characteristics is important for the differential diagnosis of lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncle
Localisation in cerebellum • Lateralized cerebellar lesions - ipsilateral symptoms and signs • Generalized cerebellar lesions - symmetrical symptomatology. • Vestibulocerebellar lesions cause disequilibrium and an ataxic gait. • Vermis, ―spinocerebellar‖ organ, truncal and gait ataxia with relative sparing of the limbs Cerebellar cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), or strokes, account for approximately 2-3% of all CVA, with twenty-thousand individuals diagnosed annually in the United States.1-3 The most common stroke affecting the cerebellum is an infarction of the area supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA).1-2, 4 Individuals with thi We examined the influence of focal cerebellar lesions on working memory (n-back task), gait, and the interaction between working memory and different gait tasks in a dual-task paradigm.The analysis included 17 young patients with chronic focal lesions after cerebellar tumor resection and 17 age-matched controls solely through the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN), which projects to various brainstem nuclei and the cerebral cortex through the thalamus [21-23]. Cerebellar lesions may affect both cerebellar input and output, resulting in motor coordination disorder and ataxia. Gd deposits in the cerebellum have raised concern regarding the safety and continue
Many things cause ataxia - cerebellar lesions, sensory disorders and upper motor neuron lesions b. Don't forget truncal stability - truncal ataxia implies a lesion of the cerebellar vermis . 3 6. Reflexes a. The only purely objective part of the neurological exam b. Look for asymmetries and sustained clonu Methods and results: Patients with selective lesions of the right MTL following surgical treatment of epilepsy caused either by hippocampal sclerosis (n = 9) or by a benign brain tumor (n = 5) were tested for short-term memory of colors, locations and color-location associations at delays of 900 and 5000 ms IA. Mass lesions - introductory concepts A. Intracranial Space-Occupying Expanding Mass Lesions 1. General Considerations Since the brain is enclosed in a rigid cranium, the free space to expand is minimal. When the mass of brain intracranial contents increases in the presence of disease, intracranial pressure (ICP) increases . It is similar to Lateral medullary syndrome but can be localized by lesions of CN VII, CN VIII and other nucleus of CN V except spinal nucleus o CODI 555 Motor Speech Disorders. Lecture 5: Cerebellar Disorders: Ataxic Dysarthria. Cerebellar Control Circuits. Receives sensory input form extensive areas of the body. Auditory feedback. Proprioceptive feedback from speech muscles, joints, etc. Connections with IAP. Connections with basal ganglia control circuits. Pathways include
Over the last decades, the importance of cerebellar processing for cortical functions has been acknowledged and consensus was reached on the strict functional and structural cortico-cerebellar interrelations. From an anatomical point of view strictly contralateral interconnections link the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex mainly through the middle and superior cerebellar peduncle Cerebellum damage is rare, but its effects can be quite serious. To help you deal with this type of brain damage, we've put together this guide to cerebellar injuries. We'll cover everything from the causes of cerebellum brain damage to effective treatment methods. What is the Cerebellum? The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is located on Cerebellum Brain Damage: What Causes. Multiple cranial nerve lesions CN 3-6 = cavernous sinus thrombosis CN 5-8 + cerebellar = cerebellopontine angle lesion CN 9-10 o + 12 = pseudobulbar/bulbar palsy o + 11 = jugular foramen syndrome o + Horner's syndrome + cerebellar + sensory disturbance (ipsilateral face, contralateral body) = lateral medullar Cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation restores pharyngeal brain activity and swallowing behaviour after disruption by a cortical virtual lesion Ayodele Sasegbon1, Masahiro Watanabe1,2, Andre Simons1, Emilia Michou1,3 BRS Neuroanatomy PDF 6th Edition is a concise evaluation of medical human neuroanatomy for course and licensing exams, together with the USMLE, and options greater than 600 board-style evaluation questions with explanations.This version additionally consists of new full-color art work and design components, up to date medical correlations, a glossary of over 200 key phrases, and an appendix of.
Cerebellar neuroscience has undergone a paradigm shift. The theories of the universal cerebellar transform and dysmetria of thought and the principles of organization of cerebral cortical connections, together with neuroanatomical, brain imaging, and clinical observations, have recontextualized the cerebellum as a critical node in the distributed neural circuits subserving behavior. The. The cerebellum is the area of the brain that controls coordination and balance. Problems with the cerebellum include. Cancer. Genetic disorders. Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders. Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in size or wasting away Cerebellar ataxia and cerebellar degeneration are common to all types, but other signs and symptoms, as well as age of onset, differ depending on the specific gene mutation. Episodic ataxia (EA). There are eight recognized types of ataxia that are episodic rather than progressive — EA 1 through EA 7, plus late-onset episodic ataxia Thirteen lesions had well-defined margins, and 15 had poorly defined margins. Low-density areas consistent with cystic and necrotic degeneration were detected in 23 (82%) of the 28 tumors. By comparison, in children, medulloblastoma usually originates in the vermis
The anatomical connection between the frontal eye field and the cerebellar hemispheric lobule VII (H-VII) suggests a potential role of the hemisphere in voluntary eye movement control. To reveal the involvement of the hemisphere in smooth pursuit and saccade control, we made a unilateral lesion around H-VII and examined its effects in three Macaca fuscata that were trained to pursue visually a. Localization of Brain Stem Lesions Anatomy of the Brain Stem Part of the brain that extends from: The rostral plane of the Superior Colliculus To the caudal end of the Medulla Oblongata at the Foramen Magnum Contains Structures: Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Brain Stem anterior view 1. Optic chiasm 2. Optic nerve 3 The OTR appears in humans with imbalance in the direct utricular-ocular pathways in the brainstem and also in some patients with various cerebellar lesions (eg, nodulus and dentate nucleus). 5. A reversible cerebellar syndrome with characteristic cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions on T 2-weighted FLAIR MRI scans has been attributed to metronidazole use, as described for our 2 patients and by others. 4 - 7 Patients usually present with cerebellar dysarthria and ataxia that may occasionally fluctuate, as in our first patient. The duration of treatment with metronidazole before. 2-Or ipsilateralcerebellar ataxia affects (L.L.) leg, causing wide-based unsteady gait.<br />Manifestations of bilateral cerebellar lesions (caused by alcoholic intoxication, hypothyrodism, cerebellar degeneration & multiple sclerosis) 1-dysarthria : slowness & slurring of speech
Lesions of the cerebellum disrupt the temporal properties of voluntary movements. Individuals with cerebellar lesions exhibit increased temporal variability on numerous motor tasks (1-3) and are impaired on nonmotor tasks that require a precise temporal representation (4-9).Neuro-imaging has provided further evidence of a cerebellar role in motor and nonmotor timing (10-12) Dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum, described initially by Lhermitte and Duclos, 1 is a rare, 2 slowly growing lesion of the cerebellum with a classic tiger-striped or striated cerebellum appearance on magnetic resonance imaging, related to the widening of cerebellar folia. It occurs predominantly in young adults, but with a broad age range distribution CEREBELLAR FUNCTION TESTS. EXPERIMENT 29: MD-1C GROUP 5 INTRODUCTION. The cerebellum located at the posterior cranial fossa posterior to the fourth ventricle, pons and medulla It is connected to the posterior brainstem by the three cerebellar peduncles superior cerebellar peduncle connects it to the midbrain middle cerebellar peduncle to the pons inferior cerebellar peduncle to the medulla.
The functional role of different subcortical areas in sequence learning is not clear. In the current study, Parkinson's patients, patients with cerebellar damage, and age-matched control participants performed a serial reaction time task in which a spatial sequence and a temporal sequence were presented simultaneously Hemangioblastoma is actually a capillary hemangioma and, despite the name with the affix of blastoma, it is a low grade (WHO grade I) lesion (note that the calvarial hemangioma is a cavernous hemangioma). The tumor is usually well-circumscribed with a highly vascular mural nodule almost always abutting pial layer and a peripheral cyst which. In my 2-Minute Neuroscience videos I explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this video, I discuss the cerebellum. I describe the location of th..