Home

Sequential Entering of states and territories from 1820 to 1854

The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 — The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Student Name _____ Date _____ Sequential Entering of States and Territories from 1820 to 1854 Free or Slave Year Free Slave (by Popular Sovereignty) 1820 Maine 1821 Missouri 1836 Arkansas 1837 Michigan 1845 Texas Florida 1846 Iowa 1848 Wisconsin Oregon Territory 1849 Minnesota. Part I. Sequential Entering of States and Territories from 1820 to 1854 Year Free Slave Free or Slave (Popular Sovereignty) 1820 Maine 1821 Missouri 1836 Arkansas 1837 Michigan 1845 Texas Florida 1846 Iowa 1848 Wisconsin Oregon Territory 1849 Minnesota Territory 1850 California Utah Territory New Mexico Territory 1853 Washington Territory 1854 Kansas Territory Nebraska Territory Part II Map of A map of the United States at the time of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) which allowed settlers to determine whether or not slavery would be allowed in their territories. The map is color-coded to show the Free States (including California, admitted to the Union as a Free State in 1850), the Slave States, and the territories that were open to slavery by the Compromise of 1850 Below is a list of all 50 states in the order they joined the Union.. The first 13 became states in July 1776 when they agreed to the United States Declaration of Independence.Each of those 13 agreed to the first U.S. constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, which formed the first Union of states between 1777 and 1781. These states are presented in the order each ratified the 1787.

Kansas Nebraska - The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 http

1854 - 1859 | Bleeding Kansas. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 established Kansas and Nebraska as territories and set the stage for Bleeding Kansas by its adoption of popular sovereignty. Under popular sovereignty, it is the residents of the territories who decide by popular referendum if the state is to be a free or enslaved What emerged in early March of 1820, less than three months after Alabama's admission, was the so-called Missouri Compromise: Maine would be admitted as a free state (and was on March 15, 1820), Missouri would be admitted as a slave state (and was on August 10, 1821), and slavery would otherwise be prohibited north of the 36°30′ parallel. Initially, seven states seceded: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. After the Confederates attacked and captured Fort Sumter, President Lincoln called for volunteers to march south and suppress the rebellion Though it had only been a part of the United States for less than two years, California becomes the 31st state in the union (without ever even having been a territory) on September 9, 1850. Mexico. Authors note: The exodus route proposed herein was conceived by the author in 2005 AD, but it is actually a restoration of the ancient view held by first century Christians. 1. Step #1: I began with the Bible as my only guide and blueprint for locating places connected with the exodus. I completely ignored everything EXCEPT the bible: I ignored maps, history, commentaries and the opinions of.

November 6, 1860-Abraham Lincoln is elected sixteenth president of the United States, the first Republican president in the nation who represents a party that opposes the spread of slavery in the territories of the United States.December 17, 1860-The first Secession Convention meets in Columbia, South Carolina.December 20, 1860-South Carolina secedes from the Union 1820 The Missouri Compromise settles the problem of slavery in new states for the next 30 years. This map illustrates free and slave territory, and then some. 1777-1865 United States Slavery and Emancipation. 1823 The Monroe Doctrine warns European nations that the US will protect the Americas. 182 The United States of America was created on July 4, 1776, with the Declaration of Independence of thirteen British colonies in North America.In the Lee Resolution of July 2, 1776, the colonies resolved that they were free and independent states. The union was formalized in the Articles of Confederation, which came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states 1820: Spain abolishes the slave trade. The Ending of the Slave Trade . Buyenlarge / Getty Images. 1830: Anglo-Brazilian Anti-Slave trade treaty is signed. Britain pressures Brazil, the largest importer of enslaved people at that time to sign the bill. In anticipation of the law coming into force, the trade actually jumps between 1827−1830

KansasNebraskaMap (1) - The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

A chronology of key events in the life of Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), lawyer, representative from Illinois, and sixteenth president of the United States. For a more detailed chronology, consult The Lincoln Log External or the three-volume Lincoln Day by Day: A Chronology, 1809-1865, edited by Earl Schenck Miers (Washington, D.C., 1960) and available online through HathiTrust External War, in the popular sense, a conflict between political groups involving hostilities of considerable duration and magnitude.In the usage of social science, certain qualifications are added. Sociologists usually apply the term to such conflicts only if they are initiated and conducted in accordance with socially recognized forms 1857 11. 1854 - 1860 5. 1820 12. 1856 6. 1860 13. 1859 7. 1619 14. 1854 as outlined in the Missouri Compromise of 1820, would be a free state and any land south of that line would be slave states. Activity 2 - Note: There is room for six battles so as long as six battles are listed in sequential order, I would give credit unless you. Five states entered the Union during Monroe's time in office: Mississippi (1817), Illinois (1818), Alabama (1819), Maine (1820) and Missouri (1821). Later Year

Fill Edsitement Kansas Nebraska Act Answers, Edit online. Sign, fax and printable from PC, iPad, tablet or mobile with pdfFiller Instantly. Try Now EARLY MEDICINE AND ETHNOBOTANY NOTED BY TRAVELERS: 1810-1850. The events leading up to this period in exploration history--the exploration and settlement of the Great Plains--are detailed best by some of the newspapers and journals then published. For New Yorkers, the variety of newspapers in publication by 1815 managed to keep citizens well informed of the plans underwa UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , Individually and on Behalf of All Others Similarly Situated, Plaintiff, v. ALTICE USA, INC., Related Features - 1820 Texas' annexation to the United States was blocked over concern about slavery and debt. James K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844 on a promise to annex Texas (slave state) and the Oregon Territory (free state). The final obstacle to annexation was removed when Texas was allowed to keep its public lands to pay off its debt Member of the Week: Elaine Weatherall is a Cemeterist and leads the US Black Heritage Project's Heritage Exchange, a group dedicated to building family trees that connect enslaved ancestors with their descendants. I also participate in many of the WikiTree Challenge weeks. I've learned so much about new sources in the US and elsewhere, and appreciate the camaraderie

As originally established when Maine became a State in 1820, the Maine Constitution provided for the election of Senators, Representatives, and the Governor by a majority vote. 36 Me. Const. art. IV, pt. 1, § 5 (1820) (providing, as to Representatives, that any person shall be elected by a majority of all the votes); Me. Const. art The Pacific states, led by California, held 47.8 percent of the 12 million; 30 percent lived in the West Central states, led by Texas. The states with the highest populations of Mexican Americans are, in descending sequence: California, Texas, Illinois, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Florida, and Washington Exceptionalism. Trevor B. McCrisken American exceptionalism is a term used to describe the belief that the United States is an extraordinary nation with a special role to play in human history; a nation that is not only unique but also superior. Alexis de Tocqueville was the first to use the term exceptional to describe the United States and the American people in his classic work. 9. In the 1780s, many Americans distrusted a strong central government. This distrust is best shown by the. A. Lack of debate over the ratification of the United States Constitution. B. Plan of government set up by the Articles of Confederation. C. Development of a Federal court system

The Texas General Land Office (GLO) is charged with the disposal of the public lands and maintaining the records of those dispositions. The GLO also manages state lands and mineral rights properties as well as develops revenue sources for the Permanent School Fund. Records consist of incoming correspondence to the GLO, dating from 1837 to 1899 The midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as Region 2). It occupies the northern central part of the United States. It was officially named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is between the northeastern United States and the western United. Both were to be slave states. In 1854, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was superseded by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This allowed white male settlers in the new territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory. The result was that pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded into Kansas with. Dred Scott decision, formally Dred Scott v.John F.A. Sandford, legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on March 6, 1857, ruled (7-2) that a slave who had resided in a free state and territory (where slavery was prohibited) was not thereby entitled to his freedom; that African Americans were not and could never be citizens of the United States; and that the Missouri Compromise (1820. Wyoming is admitted to the Union with a state constitution granting woman suffrage. The American Federation of Labor declares support for woman suffrage. The South Dakota campaign for woman suffrage loses. 1890-1925. The Progressive Era begins. Women from all classes and backgrounds enter public life

the doctrine that a state can declare null or void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution VOCABULARY: Dual Federalism Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two should be kept seperat A sequence of violent events involving free-soilers and pro-slavery Border Ruffians (from Missouri) elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border for the First Part of Herodoo't Exploration of the Butler Calhoun, Days of Mississippi, Downs Fuote, and matter. This magazine does and Spain to precipitate the acquisition of Cuba a report adverse to the proposed grant of land to the the extent of 8,000 bale. 2,000 of which vm Wilt to

Freedom States and Slavery States, 1854 - FCI

In Washington State, Robert Satiacum and James Young of the Puyallup tribe believed their right to fish was guaranteed by the 1854 Medicine Creek Treaty. They netted fish in the Puyallup River November 11, 1954 in violation of federal and state policy The establishment of the Kansas Territory had its roots in the slavery conflict of the United States. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 allowed residents of each territory to vote on whether they would allow slavery, effectively repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 that prohibited slavery i General Collection (GC) numbers are assigned to the papers of individuals and families, records of organizations and businesses, and various artificial collections (i.e., collections of materials devoted to a single theme, person, event or type of record). In some instances, a General Collection relates to a Photograph Collection FLORIDA. Mouticello December 24, 165S. 51 the time it very faiioi able to the d siqrz; at, in all and privates had been killed in battle. place of storage to be designated on the upon the rovenue : Provided, That the com. piobabil'ty England and France will be too much warehouse the time entering such Territory as a Country , Showing Regions of the Settlements of the different People or of the 29 Tribes of Lado , Intact inside Lado : Historical Facts about United States , ( U.S.A ) Presence in Lado 1876 - 1878 : United States of America , U.S.A undertook to occupy Lado with Colonel Henry . G . Prost and Colonel Alexandra . A

By 1913 Illinois women were voting in presidential elections and all local elections not specifically named in the Illinois State Constitution, 28 The best recent studies of how women won voting rights in the West are Holly J. McCammon and Karen E. Campbell, How Women Won the Vote in the West: The Political Successes of State Suffrage. Explore New Bern's Historical Markers Explore New Bern's rich and diverse history by viewing our many historical markers located throughout the historical districts and in neighboring James City. With over 1500 historical markers throughout the Tar Heel State, North Carolina's Historical Marker Program is one of the oldest such programs in continuous operation in the [ page 10 - [see page image] contents i the coming of the germans 11 ii dawn in the west: the expansion of american jewry, 1645-1880 22 iii jews of new england, the old southwest, and the border states 50 iv jews in the middle west, prairie states, and far west 85 v business survival in the transmississippi states and territories 121 vi jews move into the great plains, rockies, and the new.

List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union ..

Trigger Events of the Civil War American Battlefield Trus

The Midwestern United States, or the Midwest, is one of the four geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, occupying the northern central part of the country. It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984.. Though the region is traditionally defined in a number of ways, the Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north. On October 15, 1854, Abraham Lincoln delivered a big speech in a small town in Illinois called Peoria. The speech railed against the newly enacted Kansas-Nebraska act, designed by Stephen Douglas, a prominent senator from Illinois. The aim of the act was to allow popular sovereignty to determine whether newly admitted states would be free or slave The city of Hoover, Alabama, was founded in 1954 by William H. Hoover, Sr., a local insurance salesman and developer, and incorporated on April 28, 1967. Growing from a population of 406, the city today has over 84,000 residents and is the largest suburb of Birmingham, Alabama's largest city Beheregaray LB (2008) Twenty years of phylogeography: The state of the field and the challenges for the Southern Hemisphere. Mol Ecol 17(17):3754-3774. Beheregaray LB, Gibbs JP, Havill N, Fritts TH, Powell JR, Caccone A (2004) Giant tortoises are not so slow: Rapid diversification and biogeographic consensus in the Galápagos

This Day in Legal History—Alabama Statehood and a New Era

  1. Live cell imaging: It appears that information in methods contradicts the data shown in Figure 2. According to the figure and supplied raw data, imaging was performed over a course of over 76 hours, while methods section states 48 hours
  2. CITY OF CHICAGO MAPS: In the Research Center, please request a map by its author/title, category, date, and its number (if there is one). This is a collection of maps relating to the city of Chicago, or the area that was to become Chicago

Timeline of events leading to the American Civil Wa

  1. ta Ross, Harriet Tubman (c. 1822 - 1913) was an African American who escaped from slavery and then, using the Underground Railroad, guided at least 70 more slaves to freedom including her family members. Tubman was nicknamed Moses and she was never captured and neither were the.
  2. United States History I. HIST-1301 Spring 2012 01/17/2012 - 05/13/2012 Course Information. Section 108 Lecture W 18:00 - 20:40 ECR1 416 John Black. Office Hours. No office hours have been entered for this term Course Requirements UNDER CONSTRUCTION! INSTRUCTOR.
  3. The Territory of Nebraska was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska. New!!: American frontier and Nebraska Territory · See more » Ned Buntlin
  4. ACT OF JULY 22, 1854 - Donation of 160 acres to each male white resident of New Mexico who resided there on January 1, 1853, and to male white citizens or intended citizens of the United States who emigrated there by January1, 1858. According to the Public Land Commission of 1904, only 4,640 acres had been approved for patent under this act
  5. ogen activator (rtPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke by the Food and Drug Ad

California becomes the 31st state in record time - HISTOR

Text for H.R.1256 - 111th Congress (2009-2010): Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Ac Charles Dickens, in letter to John Forster (Sep. 29, 1854) Walking is also an ambulation of mind. Gretel Ehrlich , River History, in William Kittredge and John Smart, eds., Montana Spaces: Essays and Photographs in Celebration of Montana (1988 (575) State means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, and any other commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United.

The Exodus Route: A scriptural proof, with the witness of

State policies for land use and natural resource management : a systematic statement of current major State agency operational policies, grounded in State law, relating to State responsibilites for land use and natural resource management / ([Olympia] : The Office, 1977), by 1965-1977 Washington (State). Governor (page images at HathiTrust; US. In those instances where a regulation published in the Federal Register states a date certain for expiration, an appropriate note will be inserted following the text. OMB CONTROL NUMBERS The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-511) requires Federal agencies to display an OMB control number with their information collection request 16.3.12 Jun 28, 2018: Therap Helps States and Providers Meet State Incident Management Audit Recommendations Outlined in Joint Report by the Office of Inspector General (OIG) 1081 16.3.13 Jun 27, 2018: BD, Heart to Heart International and the NAFC Announce 2018 Grantees for a Multi-Year Point of Care Testing Initiative to Improve Patient. 956. ipseity- state of being oneself 957. iracund- inclined to become angry 958.iridal- pertaining to a rainbow 959. iridine- rainbowlike 960. iridize- to make iridescent 961. irrecusable- that cannot be rejected 962. irredenta- clamoring for territory to be returned to natural fgroups 963. irreption-stealthy entrance subtle or creepy intr

The Oregon Territory was divided by the United States and Great Britain. California. War with Mexico resulted in California and the southwest territory becoming part of the United States. Understand that westward migration was influenced by geography and economic opportunity To resolve this problem, the United States Congress admissions the two-part compromise, granting Maine as a free state to balance Missouri entering as a slave state. The compromise also created an invisible line at 36 30 degrees and stated each state above the line was free, and each below was slave Any state office held subsequent to service in Congress. 00 No service in a state office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989. 01 Any state office, including state judgeship (coded '1' on the variable LAST JUDCL OFC PRE-CONG). 02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress-01 MD: missing dat The myth created around Paul Revere infused his silver designs with a patriotic aspect still promoted by Revere collectors and museums. Colonial revival designs after Revere models used the patriotic element of early American silver as a marketing tool to sell reproduction and revival wares. Source: USPS

Black towns done. 1. 1. 2. The Black Towns Project. Purpose is to map the known Black towns (that is plotted and incorporated) townships of America 1700- present. To also provide a bit of history for those places.. We had plenty of settlements, villages and communities, squatters camps and eventually Freedmens colonies For instance, a war breaking out between rival states A and B requires A's rival, state C, to come to the aid of B. State C's assistance to B motivates state D, also a rival to C, to support A. State D proceeds to attack state C and its main ally state E (also D's rival), which, in turn, encourages state F (still another D rival) to enter on. Buy Prebound, School, and Library Books. Toggle navigation Perma-Bound Book

Civil War Timeline - Gettysburg National Military Park (U

The Henry Wagner Family of Detroit, Michigan. My great-great-great-grandfather was Henry Wagner, born circa 15 December 1829 in Germany. 1 According to the 1900 census, which was recorded when Henry was living as a widower in the household of his son of his son, John, Henry arrived in America in 1855 (Figure 1). 2 The title descended in a direct line for nine sequential generations from 1458 until the death of the ninth Lord in 1696. He was succeeded by his great-uncle, the tenth Lord. In 1697 the latter's son, Simon Fraser, known as Simon the Fox, kidnapped and forcefully married the late ninth Lord's widow, the former Lady Amelia Murray, only.

American Timeline: 1492-Toda

  1. Coast Fever — Maputo, Mozambique 1854 George R. Dwyer was born in Massachusetts. He served as U.S. Consul to Lourenco, Marques (modern-day Maputo, Mozambique) and died on June 24, 1854
  2. By 1820 he was negotiating with the New York state authorities for possession of Grand Island in the Niagara River, opposite the little town of Buffalo. It was to be the site of a Jewish colony. The riots in Germany and the reemergence of the German and Austrian police states was a blow to Jews in Europe
  3. Misc. Baldwin County Georgia Biographies. JOHN T. ALLEN, Judge of the county court, Milledgeville, Baldwin co. James Troup Allen, was born at Mt. Zion, Hancock county, Oct. 21, 1861. His father is, and all his life has been a farmer in Hancock county., During the late war he was a non-commissioned officer in the Confederate service and remained.
  4. The Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, O
  5. Hoping to avoid a second front in the ongoing war with the French Empire, Parliament repealed the Orders on June 16, 1812, but it was too late. President Madison had asked Congress for a declaration of war on June 1. The House of Representatives voted 79-49 in favor of war, and the Senate concurred with a 19-13 vote
  6. Before the territory of Michigan had been admitted to the growing family of States, in 1837, her citizens had recognized the advantages of steam roads for the Peninsula, and several routes were projected; the Northern Railroad, from St. Clair to Lake Michigan being of greatest interest to residents of this section, since its route traversed.

Territorial evolution of the United States - Wikipedi

This is a listing of historical figures who have made a contribution to the history of electoral science in one way or another. (See also separate page of biographies of living psephologists and political scientists.) Adams, John Quincy: (1767-1848); US diplomat and statesman, ambassador to the Netherlands 1794-97, ambassador to Prussia 1797-1801, US Senator 1803-08, ambassador to Russia. On this day in 2007, in one of the deadliest shootings in U.S. history, 32 students and teachers die after being gunned down on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University by Seung Hui Cho, a student at the school who later dies from a self-inflicted gunshot. About two hours after the initial shootings, Cho entered Norris Hall, which housed the Engineering Science and.

Embarking on a 15 month tour through the 24 states comprising the U.S., he was honored at every stop. To celebrate his visit to his adopted country, Congress voted him the sum of $200,000 and gave him 36 square miles of land. (nice veteran's benefits!!!!). The states of New York and Maryland made him an honorary citizen Canonical repressive states include classic heterochromatin marked by H3K27me3, a mark deposited by PRC2 and its catalytic subunit, EZH2. EZH2 is overexpressed in IDH-wildtype glioblastoma and variou The estimated proportion of persons of New England descent in these states in 1820 may seem too high because many persons living in Illinois and Indiana were descended from Louisiana slaveholders who had migrated up the Mississippi River before 1790. However, these two states only had 6 percent of the population of the eight-state region in 1820 The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of the four geographic regions defined by the United States Cen AWARD - Fixes issue where entering multiple lines for the same person for different periods of time on an award budget displayed doubled salary. A user may enter in multiple line items for the same person to charge different levels of effort for different periods of time (RESKC-4887

Timeline of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trad

Pierce County, Washington Pierce County is the second most populous county in the U.S. state of Washington. Formed out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory , it was named for U.S. President Franklin Pierce. As of 2009, the population was 796,836 The Northwest Territory (1787) was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and the upper-Mississippi. Because the Northwest Territory lay between the East Coast and the then-far-West, the states carved out of it were called the ''Northwest''

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Beethoven, by Romain Rolland This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at. In 1860, an executive official of the United States Navy was tasked with managing the love letters American women sent to samurai. Seventeen-year-old Tateishi Onojirō, nicknamed Tommy, made headlines across America for his real and imagined adventures as part of the 1860 Japanese Embassy to the United States, whether [drinking] champagne like a trooper or flirting with American. Piecing her complete activities together from her notes is rather difficult. 27 Ibid.; Poll, ed., Utah's History, 465; A State Plan for Utah: Progress Report, April 15, 1935 (Salt Lake City: Utah. The State of California has been in deficit for recent years and is having to continue to cut back on their spending. One area they tend to focus on cutting back on seems to be transportation. I have never been as impacted by calls, letters and requests from my local communities, and those requests are for dollars to be able to meet the local. Clarksville is a city in and the county seat of Montgomery County, Tennessee, [8] and the fifth-largest city in the state behind Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, and Chattanooga, [9] respectively. The city had a population of 132,957 at the 2010 census, and an estimated population of 135,990 in 2014. [10]It is the principal central city of the Clarksville, TN-KY metropolitan statistical area.

Timeline Articles and Essays Abraham Lincoln Papers at

Boat Dock at the Tampa Sheraton as seen from the east bank) Paper Money • September/October 2012 • Whole No. 281328 General Jesse Carter General Jesse Carter, the issuer of the tampa ferry scrip, was born in 1809 in Alachua County, east florida. He is best known as the leader of the florida mili- tia in the third seminole War Gothic Horror is one of the oldest of the horror genres. Darker, edgier and on the Romanticism end of Romanticism Versus Enlightenment, it tends to play on both the thrill and the fear of the unknown, and places a great importance on atmosphere.It's usually heavily symbolic, sometimes even dreamlike.In addition to being important to the horror genre, the first scifi, fantasy, romance, mystery.